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An Exploration


Biography & Memoirs, History


Richard Bourne





Rights available:

French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish


Richard Bourne has been writing about South America since his Political Leaders of Latin America was published in 1969, and his many books include Lula of Brazil: The Story So Far (2008).





For over twelve years in the first half of the nineteenth century, Giuseppe Garibaldi, the hero of Italian unification, lived, learned and fought in South America. He was tortured, escaped death on countless occasions, and met his Brazilian wife, Anita, who eloped with him in 1839. From then on, she would share in Garibaldi’s personal and political odyssey, first in the breakaway republic of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil, and then as Montevideo’s admiral and general in the Uruguayan civil war.

Richard Bourne breathes life and understanding into these spectacular South American adventures, which also shed light on the creation of Italy. Garibaldi’s Redshirts liberated Sicily and Naples wearing ponchos adopted by his Italian Legion in Montevideo. His ideas, his charismatic command of volunteers, and his naive dislike of politicking were all infused by his earlier experiences in South America.

Bourne combines historical research with his travels in Uruguay and southern Brazil to explore contemporary awareness of and reflection on how the past can influence or be transformed by the needs of today. Now, at a time of narrow identity politics, Garibaldi’s unifying zeal and advocacy for subjugated peoples everywhere offer an exemplary lesson in transnational political idealism.


‘Bourne writes with attractive, straightforward enthusiasm … this is a useful history of Garibaldi’s unusual apprenticeship among the cowboys of South America.’ — Literary Review ‘Bourne succeeds in vividly describing what Garibaldi did during these formative years, what he learnt and brought back with him to Europe, what happened after he left South America and how he and Anita are remembered in South America and Italy.’  — Cold Type ‘While chronicling Garibaldi’s South American wars, this book analyses, in lively style, his reckless charisma, his marriage to the rebellious Anita and their controversial political legacies. Bourne reveals one of the most adventurous and inspiring characters of the nineteenth century.’  — David McLean, Emeritus Professor of History, Ki...


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